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多肽在心血管结构和功能中的作用研究(2)

摘要:4.3心力衰竭 有研究[26-27]分析了舒张性心力衰竭患者血浆中的成纤维细胞生长因子FGF21,发现FGF2可以促进体内葡萄糖的平衡和脂质能量代谢,从而减弱心脏肥大。通过一 年的 随访,发 现 血 浆FGF21对心血管不良事件的发生有着较好的预测能力,这一发现表明FGF2
关键词:多肽,心血管,结构,功能,中的,作用,研究,

  4.3心力衰竭 有研究[26-27]分析了舒张性心力衰竭患者血浆中的成纤维细胞生长因子FGF21,发现FGF2可以促进体内葡萄糖的平衡和脂质能量代谢,从而减弱心脏肥大。通过一 年的 随访,发 现 血 浆FGF21对心血管不良事件的发生有着较好的预测能力,这一发现表明FGF21可能参与到了舒张性心力衰竭的病理生理过程。
  
  4.4冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病 冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病是冠状动脉血管发生动脉粥样硬化病变而引起血管腔狭窄或阻塞,造成心肌缺血、缺氧或坏死而导致的心脏病。 Ames等[28]最初在鱼脊髓发现含有11个氨基酸的环形肽,尾加压素II(urotensin II,U II) 是目前发现的哺乳动物体内最强大的缩血管作用内源性活性肽。血清UII的水平与颈动脉粥样硬化、冠脉疾病患者的病情呈明显正相关,在AS患者冠脉样本上含量较高。 Segain等[29]发现U II可作为单核细胞的趋化因子发挥促炎症作用参与AS的发生。 Shiraishi等[30]发现UII还可促进活性氧(ROS) 产生和泡沫细胞形成。血管紧张素II(Ang II) 来源多肽有Ang-(1-7)、Ang III和Ang IV,细胞内和组织局部的RAS作用,Ang II收缩血管壁引起炎症、氧化应激导致的内皮损伤是直接导致AS发生的重要原因,Ang-(1-7) 有拮抗Ang II作用,改善血管舒张功能、抑制VSMC增殖迁移、降低血脂水平[31],对动脉粥样硬化的发生发展有保护作用。
  
  4.5心房颤动 心房颤动是临床常见的快速心律失常之一,Apelin也是一种内源性肽类激素,直接参与心肌细胞收缩和电生理改变,有很强的正性肌力作用,可参与调节心血管系统的稳态。 Ellinor[32]团队在对孤立性房颤患者的研究中发现,房颤患者apelin水平较健康对照组明显减低。 Falcone等[33]研究显示,血浆apelin水平在中位数以下的患者,其房颤复发的风险明显增高,血浆apelin水平低且伴有BNP高水平的患者,则预后更差。因此,血浆apelin低水平有助于识别房颤高危人群,是房颤复发及判断预后的一项危险因素。
  
  Parikh等[34]研究发现松弛素(Relaxin) 可能通过抗纤维化、抗炎、改善心肌重构、调节离子通道电流等机制延缓房颤的发生发展,有望成为临床房颤治疗的新方法。
  
  5展望
  
  多肽在许多生理和病理生理过程中都发挥了重要的作用,因此探索多肽水平的改变特别是蛋白水解酶产生的活性片段的变化对于发现新的诊疗工具有提示意义。近年来,质谱技术的快速进步对于多肽的研究有着极大的促进作用。如何在体内高效的提取多肽,在体外精准的定量多肽对于多肽组学未来的研究将会是一大难点。作为一门新兴学科,多肽组学也存在一些缺陷,比如一些提取手段无法大规模推广,研究成本过高,多肽本身结构的特殊性等都为研究设置了难题。许多研究只是筛选了一些差异表达的多肽而未能对其功能及机制做进一步的阐明。相信随着研究技术的不断成熟,多肽组学将会为临床诊疗工作做出更多的贡献。
  
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论文来源参考:程子杰,钱玲梅. 多肽在心血管疾病中的研究进展及展望[J]. 转化医学电子杂志,2017,(02):77-80. 转载请注明来源。原文地址:/20190313/1567970.html
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